Kidney stones can form when substances in the urine such as phosphorus, calcium and oxalate become highly concentrated. The body uses food for energy and tissue repair. Waste products in the blood stream are carried to the kidneys and excreted as urine. Diet is one of several factors that can promote or inhibit kidney stone formation.
Diet Plan for Kidney Stones Prevention
People can help prevent kidney stones by making changes in fluid intake and changes in consumption of sodium, animal protein, calcium and oxalate. Drinking enough fluids each day is the best way to help prevent kidney stones.
Fluid intake reduces the risk of stone formation.when a person is well hydrated urine will be a pale color rather than yellow.Pale urine is less concentrated in waste products such as calcium,oxalate and uric acid that is why less likely lead to stone formation.
Drink 2-3 litres of fluid in the day so that urine output is of 2 litres in a day.
Tips to increase water intake
- Enjoy a glass of fruit juice in breakfast.
- keep a large mug or bottle of water at your desk and sip it throughout the day.
- Drink a large glass of water at specific times during a day.
- Add slices of lemon ,lime or oranges to cool water.
- Try to drink with the straw.
- Eat more fruits and vegetables as they contain high amount of water in it.
- Alcohol is bad for stones because it dehydrates the body.
- A high salt intake is directly associated with high calcium and low citrate levels in the urine,leading to increased risk of stone formation.
- Avoid processed foods, canned foods, bakery foods,hot dogs, fast foods, luncheon meats.
- Check the labels for ingredients and hidden sodium such as monosodium glutamate,baking powder,sodium bicarbonate, sodium nitrate,sodium alginate.
3. Animal protein
Protein is an important nutrient in the body ,it helps in the body growth and repair.Both animal and vegetable protein available to us in our diet.But some people are at risk of developing of kidney stones when excessive amount of animal protein is their in the diet.
- Animal protein like meat, poultry, fish, eggs, cheese.
- Vegetable protein like lentils, butter beans,baked beans,hummus, kidney beans, chickpeas.
- Reduction of animal protein in the diet decrease calcium and uric acid in the urine and increase citrate and decreasing the risk of stone formation.
- Protein build up drinks should be avoided.
Calcium in the diet is useful because it binds oxalate in the gut, which prevents it from being absorbed therefore low calcium diets are not recommended as they result in increased oxalate absorption to the body,higher levels in the urine and increased risk of stone formation.
- Calcium content foods are semi skimmed milk, yogurt, cheddar cheese, tinned sardines, dried figs.
5. Fruits and vegetables
- Drinking fruits juices appears to decrease oxalate and increase citrate levels in the urine.
- Fruits and vegetables have an alkalinising effect on the urine.
- Eating certain foods with high levels of oxalate can increase the amount of oxalate in the urine,where it combines with calcium to form calcium oxalate stones.Foods with high amount of oxalate in urine should be avoided like spinach, rhubarb, nuts, wheat bran.
- A high fiber plant foods contain a compound called phytate.
- Low phytate intake had an increased risk of calcium oxalate stone formation so, increasing your fiber intake is beneficial.
- Foods which are high in the fiber are porridge, baked beans, dried apricots, whole bread, fruits and vegetables etc.
The following foods are rich in the oxalates so limit intake of such foods:
- Some fruits like blackberries, blueberries, raspberries, strawberries, kiwifruits, plums.
- Nuts and seeds
- Soy products like tofu, soy cheese, soy ice cream and soy milk.
Diet should be high in fluid intake, fruits and vegetables, moderate in low fat dairy products and low in animal protein.