Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Cause, Symptoms, Treatment and Diet

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus commonly called as Juvenile onset diabetes insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM). This type of Diabetes occurred at younger age. This type of Diabetes refers to cell mediated autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta Islets cells which lead to absolute insulin deficiency.


Cause of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 

There is a interplay role of Genetic and Environment. In a genetically predisposed individual Environmental factor trigger an autoimmune process [activation of T-Lymphocytes reactive to Islets cell antigens] that leads to destruction of islets cells and insulin deficiency. The immune response leads to development of auto antibodies against various Islets cell components including glutamic acid, decarboxylase antibodies, Islets cell antibodies and insulin anti bodies. Beta cell destruction is thought to be primarily a T-cell mediated process as evidenced by the presence of intense insulitis in newly diagnosed patients.

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms

  • Frequent urination
  • Blurred vision
  • Vomiting
  • Extreme hunger
  • Extreme thirst
  • Weight loss
  • Weakness
  • Feeling edgy and having mood changes feeling sick to stomach
  • Nausea

Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Patient with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus require daily insulin therapy to live. The pancreas is no longer making insulin and if none is given they will die in a matter of days or week.

Insulin types and their action

Rapid acting Begin working Peak at ends working
Humalog 15-20 min    30-90 min 3-4 hrs
Novolog 15-20 min 40-50 min 3-4 hrs
Short acting
Huminsulin R 30-60 min 80-120 min 4-6 hrs
Intermediate acting



2-4 hrs


6-10 hrs


14-16 hrs

Long acting (basal insulin)


90 min Relatively flat upto 24 hrs

Diet for Type 1 Diabetes Patient

In Diabetes mellitus diet management is very important. Complex cabohydrate, moderate Protein and less fat should be given.


The foods we eat contain nutrients that provide energy and other things the body need and one of these is carbohydrates .How much and what type of carbohydrates are consumed is  important for managing Diabetes .Complex carbohydrate like fibers (whole grains, vegetables, certain fruits ) must be included in the diet.


Moderate amount of protein is required to the body. In vegetarian diet Protein rich foods are pulses, cereals, yogurt. In non vegetarian diet meat, fish, chicken are good source of protein but should be consumed in moderate amount.

Oil and Fats

Oil must contain omega 3 fatty acid which is helpful for heart. Patient must avoid fried and fatty foods because it will add on the calories. 10-15 gms oil is sufficient for the patient per day. Never stick to 1 oil try to change the oil.

With the management of the diet, physical activity and dose of insulin patient can live there life normal.